Integrity versus despair essay

Erik Erikson 's Psychosocial Theory Essay

Starting with the theorist Erik Erikson , development and the aging process within itself was examined over one entire lifespan and how these different stage of development plays a role in the individual's overall psychological well being and construct. Central to all stages of development is the resolution of some form of internal conflict and ultimately acceptance of the strive created by this conflict.

For mature aging adults this conflict hence development is triggered due the delegation of more free time due to such factors as retirement to deliberate and ponder about their life and their past. It is at this phase of their life that the aging adult either feels gratification for the ultimate outcome of their life has or despair at the goals and pursuits that has not come to fruition. According to researchers , Ryland and Rickwood ,Critical to acceptance in elderly adults is a strong social support,physical dependency and positive affectivity. This procedure of contemplation of one desires vs.

They have achieved some measure of ego integrity. In the aging individual according to Erikson, there is an internal response which occurs to the many different changes that the aging individual faces ie. There comes a equilibrium which occurs in the elderly individual , where there own impending deaths is viewed through the understanding that they will live on through their extended family Kezel and Fariba Within the integrity versus despair schema, older adults view their lives in review.

This process by which the aging adults reflects upon the series and experiences of their lifetime in a positive view they are on there way to achieving Ego Integrity.

In a study conducted by Kezel and Fariba which examined the key difference between Ego Integrity v. A crucial variable to Erickson , final stage of development is the judgment that the individual's life has been worthwhile and good. When the individual gains a sense of fulfillment about the life that they have life and accepts whatever shortcoming they life has had and ultimately that death is an unavoidable part of reality they can gain peace. If a person does not successfully complete these eight stages, Erikson claims it can result in reduced ability to complete further stages McLeod, In turn this would create an unhealthy personality and low self-esteem.

Finding a balance through many of these stages is important.

Eriksons Eight Stages Of Psychosocial Development Psychology Essay

Here, we will discuss three of these eight stages. We will focus on Autonomy versus shame and doubt, Identity versus role confusion, and Generativity versus stagnation. An interview has been done on three individuals that fall within these three stages. We will relate the answers to the interview questions to the specific stage to determine exactly how the person falls into that stage.

Each interviewee was asked the same questions; just in different forms to be sure the question was understood for each person. One interviewee was three years old, the second was thirteen years old, and the third was thirty five years old.

Critical Evaluation

This shows that Braxton is expressing his independence by feeding all of his animals on his own most days. He does not rely on his mom and dad to do his job for him.

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This also shows that Braxton does not quite have the full capability of thinking futuristically. We, as adults, may have a list a mile long criticizing ourselves and pointing out every little flaw. However, Braxton still has the innocent mindset and does not think negatively about himself yet.

When asked what his least favorite thing about himself is, Braxton insisted that he does like himself. This shows that he is not quite into stage three Initiative versus guilt because he does not view things about himself as good or bad. Braxton thinks other people think he is nice and awesome. This goes right along with not noticing negative things about him. Children at this age are so innocent minded and mainly just concentrated on their increased independence.

This response shows that he has grasped what fear is but it has not consumed him. He understands that these things could hurt him but he does not focus on it all the time, he just knows that these things could be mean to him and that scares him. If Braxton could change anything about the world, he would change his underwear. This makes it very clear that Braxton is not able to see the big picture or see overall negative things in the world at this age.

When asked what he would change about himself, he responded that he would change himself into a cowboy.


This goes along with the innocent mind and not seeing the negative in him at the age of three. Braxton has been given the opportunity to master his independence at a safe distance. His parents have support and encouraged his independence and it is showing through his development. Patience is huge for parents as their children move through this stage. Even letting children get dressed on their own or put their shoes on themselves helps the child; though it is good for the parents to provide support and to assist if and when the child asks for assistance.

Braxton said he cares most about going to the park and his favorite people at this time are two of his cousins, Silas and Violet. It is not until stage three Initiative versus guilt that children really are focused on play and interaction with others.

Erikson’s End Stage of Development Essay

Braxton may be getting very close to entering stage three because he has been much more interested in spending more time with his cousins and playing with them. If Braxton were able to teach someone younger than him something, he said he would teach babies how to walk and how to talk. It is very clear based off of this response alone that Braxton is in the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage. This stage is all about children learning to gain independence and Braxton very clearly would just want to teach someone younger than him that bit of independence that he knows and has mastered.

Overall, it seems as if Braxton is mastering the Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt stage. He seems as if he feels confident in himself and will achieve the virtue of will. It does not seem as though Braxton feels inadequate or has low self-esteem. He thinks highly of himself and he loves himself just the way he is. This stage takes place during adolescence, from approximately twelve to eighteen years of age. This is another stage where independence plays a major role, just in a much different aspect. During this stage, an adolescent is figuring out who they are and where they are going in their life.

Evan is very into baseball right now and practices or plays every single day of the entire year. He is very focused on his life right now and has realized how much it could affect his future so he is working hard now so he can achieve these goals as he gets older. Evan likes how he pitches in baseball and wishes he were bigger so he could be even better at baseball than he already is.

He is very wrapped up in baseball and has a mindset that he absolutely will achieve these goals he has set for himself. Evan does not fear that he will not be able to achieve these dreams and goals. He does however, fear snakes.

Integrity Vs Despair In The Older Adult | Researchomatic

This shows that Evan is not wrapped up in fear and it does not consume him, but he knows what fear is and he knows things to be afraid of. Evan feels accomplished when he and his teammates win a tournament and also when he puts in a good day of work. He is starting to mature a lot more since he is realizing that working hard to win and working hard in general are when he feels the most accomplished.

Evan had a few interview questions that he hesitated on an answer and he also felt uncomfortable at times. He is in a stage where he is learning to develop a sense of self and also at this age, most adolescents are concerned what their peers think of them and how their peers view them. Evan insisted that he does not care what others think of him but it absolutely seemed like there was something he wanted to say. He was asked how he believes other people think of him, so it was not even a question in a negative way.

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Based on the way he answered his question, I think he is beginning to see negative things in himself but does not want his peers and friends to think or see the flaws that Evan notices in him. He wishes that he were bigger taller than he is so that he could be even better at baseball and also because I think he feels inferior compared to other kids at school or on his baseball team.

Evan is able to see futuristically at this stage. When asked what he cares about most, I assumed he would answer baseball since that is such a huge part of his life right now and is what he dreams of doing even when he is older, but Evan said he cares most about money.

He loves to buy things and have the best of the best and wear name brand everything. Evan will work right now because he enjoys it but also because he loves having money and being able to spend it on things he really likes. Evan does not have any regrets at this point in his life. He does wish the world had more fish in the waters. He wants to be able to catch more fish and he believes that if there were more fish, it would be inevitable that he would be able to catch more.

If Evan had to give any person younger than him advice, he would tell them if they make a bad decision, they need to own up to it and accept their consequences.

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