Matter, elements, and atoms
Most of an atom's mass comes from its very small nucleus, whose protons and neutrons each have a mass of approximately 1 u atomic mass units. Electrons, on the other hand, have…. Login Join. Home Page Atomic structure Essay.
Structure of the Atom (grades )
Atomic structure Essay Submitted By nickmick Open Document. Atomic structure: - The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons.
Around the nucleus are electrons arranged in shells. All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons and neutrons. An atom has no overall electrical charge. The masses of protons and neutrons and electrons are incredibly small.
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Atomic mass units are used to express their mass relative to one another — relative masses. Relative masses and charges of sub atomic particles; elements arranged in the periodic table in order of atomic number; symbol, mass number and atomic number of each element.
The structure of an atom
During a chemical reaction, the elements remain the same. Only electrons are involved, they are usually transferred or shared between atoms.
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A small amount of energy is either taken in or given out. In nucluear reactions, nuclei of atoms either split or join together. In both cases, huge amounts of energy are released: In nuclear fission, the nucleus of one atom of a large element splits to give two nuclei of smaller elements.
In nuclear fusion, the nuclei of two small atoms join together to form a new element. Electronic structure: - Electrons are arranged in shells. The innermost shell hold up to two electrons, the second up to eight. Each shell represents a different energy level. The innermost shell has the lowest energy level. Electrons occupy the lowest available energy levels. Atoms with a full outer shell are considered to be stable and unreactive. When an atom reacts, it gains, loses… Show More.
Related Documents: Atomic structure Essay. Essay on atomic bonding Atomic structure and the periodic table Review the structure of the sub atomic particles in an atom. What does the atomic number… Words - Pages Essay The Atomic Bomb power to change the world? American physicist Robert Millikan designed an experiment to measure the absolute value of the charge of electron which is discussed below. Figure 4.
Robert Millikan discovered charge of electron and won Noble prize in physics in In , American physicist R. Millikan measured the charge of an electron using negatively charged oil droplets. In his gold foil experiment, Rutherford bombarded a beam of alpha particles on an ultrathin gold foil and then detected the scattered alpha particles in zinc sulfide ZnS screen. From the previous discussion, we can see that the gold foil experiment gave a clear picture of the structure of an atom which consists of protons nucleus and same number of electrons outside of the nucleus.
Figure 6. Schematic diagram for the experiment that led to the discovery of neutrons by Chadwick. Several theories and experimental observations eventually led the discovery of neutron. We can summarize some of the scientific observations behind the discovery of neutron.
Figure 7. Ernest Rutherford left was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work in radioactivity. James Chadwick on the right , a student of Rutherford won Nobel Prize in Physics in for discovery of neutron. Figure 8. The gold foil experiment was originally conducted by Hans Geiger left and Ernest Marsden right under the supervision of Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester.
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