Ridley, For example, one of the classic examples for discussing genes is Konrad Lorenz's work on the imprinting that occurs in baby geese — they have it within them to imprint whatever is moving near them, which is normally their mother. However, it could be anything else that is moving around them, such as a person.
What is the Meaning of Self-Motivation?
But no matter what they imprint on, rather it be their mother, a human, or an inanimate object, the piece of the environment that they actually imprint on is going to have a huge impact on their life. Thus, genes provide the goal, but the environment provides the process. And it is what happens during the process that will determine the outcome. Jean Piaget was one of the first persons to study children as species equipped with a characteristic mind, rather than as apprentice adults little adults. He discovered they went through a series of five developmental stages that were always in the same order, but not always at the same rate:.
Sensorimotor - infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. Piaget believed a gene's meaning depends heavily on its context with the surrounding environment. That is, while a child goes through four stages of development genes , it is the active engagement of the mind with the surrounding environment nurture that causes development. The two main forces of the environment are feedback and social interaction.
From this, the child assimilates predicted experiences and accommodates it to unexpected experiences. For some time it was believed that animals grew no new neurons in the cortex of their brains upon reaching adulthood, thus their fate was basically sealed by their genetic nature. This was apparently proved by a Pasco Rakic, a neuroscientist. However, Fernando Nottebohm soon found that adult canaries made new neurons when they learn new songs. So Rakic replied that it was only adult mammals that could not grow neurons. But soon afterward, Elizabeth Gould found that rats grow new neurons.
So Rakic replied primates could not. Gould next discovered that tree shrews grew new neurons. Rakic then stated that higher primates could not grow new neurons. Gould found them in marmosets. Rakic zeroed it down to old-world primates.
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Gould then discovered them in macaques. Today it is almost certain that all primates, including humans, grow new neurons in response to new experiences, and lose neurons in response to neglect. Thus, with all the determinism built into the initial wiring of our brain, experience with our surrounding environment refines and in some cases rewires that initial wiring. Nature may be our internal guide map , but nurture is our explorer that has the final say in what we do and become destination.
In Clark Aldrich's book, Simulations and the Future of Learning , he tells the story of a manager who listened to the ideas presented to him by his subordinates and then went to his boss and presented them as his own. He then had the subordinates dismissed so that there were no witnesses left. I imagine that he was considered a good leader by both his boss and himself, yet the subordinates would of course had said otherwise. In most circumstances, the best judges of leadership are the followers.
I once worked with a retired Navy Chief who led one of our departments. Being located in the Pacific Northwest, the department has a good share of individuals who, let's say, have quite an opposing idea of the military. In addition, since the company provides same-sex benefits to its partners, it also attracts it share of people from the gay community. So here we have this ramrod-straight leader with perfectly combed hair, who even in civilian clothes looks as if he is still in uniform starched, straight lines, etc.
His subordinates, for the most part, have long hair, body-piercings, dress quite sloppy, are quite liberal, whose actions at times reminds you of the demonstrators you see during anti-war protests. However, they thought he was the greatest thing since the invention of peanut butter.
They were in tears when he left the company to go on to greater things. Gandhi and the retired Navy Chief are leaders because they capture the essence of truth and selfless service. During Enron's heyday, its officers were discussing how much money they could screw out of Aunt Millie. Leadership is multifaceted in that it takes a path along many dimensions and perspectives.
In the early stages of the Iraq war, a senior Army officer was charged with pointing a gun at a local and threatening to shoot him if he did not reveal some information. According to the officer, he needed the information to save lives and that he would not have actually shot him. His actions were applauded by many, to include the mothers and wives of the soldiers he was sworn to protect one of the basic rules of leadership is that you look out for the welfare of those under you.
However, senior Army officials had a different outlook on the matter in that he broke the basic leadership attributes of ethics, values, and character that it expects of its leaders.
The Principles of Military Leadership [Day 3] - The Military Leader
Leadership decisions often take paths that define our nation's humanity and character. Fleishman, E. Personnel are People. Personnel Psychology.
Ridley, M. Nature Via Nurture. New York: Harper Collins. Military Leadership. FM Washington, DC: U.
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Concepts of leadership | An overview
Character and Traits in Leadership Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing. Pennsylvania State University. PSYCH Zaleznik, A. The managerial mystique: Restoring leadership in business. You must be logged in to post a comment. Home Blog About. References Feist, J. Theories of Personality. McDougall, J. Theaters of the mind. New York: Basic Books. MCO P Performance Evaluation System. Washington D.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. Skip to toolbar Sites at Penn State. Most people will get a better feeling of who they are over time by simply looking back at their previous actions, reactions and decisions. But you can also choose to take an active part of the progress right now. Let the outside world exist on its own. Take some time to look at yourself. What have you been doing?
How do you react to certain situations? What makes you smile? Figure yourself out. A lot of people let fear stand in their way even though they know deep down they have the ability to face it. Maybe a talent will turn into a career. Maybe a character trait will turn into a new path or relationship.
Ryan Holiday said: . You can always become better. Maybe you did some soul-searching and you realized that you did choose the right path. Or maybe you just realized that you want a completely different life. You quit your job, bought a dog and moved to a new city. Self-improvement is not about putting yourself down. Self-improvement is about lifting yourself up higher. Self-improvement can be applied to anything from learning a new skill, learning to deal with your anger, or putting yourself in a new situation that scares you. Some people need to change their scenery completely.
Some people just need to attend a meeting every Thursday. Others may need to take up a self-defence class to feel in control again. Sometimes life is not about gaining or achieving. Sometimes life is simply about losing and letting go. People are capable of doing almost everything that the people they admire are doing.
It all comes down to mind-set and commitment.
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